Fifth disease is a mild viral infection caused by human parvovirus B19. Fifth disease got its name because it was listed as the fifth of several illnesses that commonly caused rashes in children before the modern era of vaccines. Four others worth mentioning are measles (rubeola), chicken pox (varicella), German measles (3-day measles, rubella) and roseola. You may also hear fifth disease called “slapped cheek disease” or “face disease”

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